Monday, August 14, 2017

The GIS mapping challenge in power distribution

This post is slightly technical and may interest those engaged in power distribution sector. A feature of distribution loss reduction programs across India over the past fifteen years has been the focus on GIS mapping of 11 KV distribution feeders emanating from sub-stations. This is also a major part of the government's latest distribution loss reduction thrust as well as an important priority under the UDAY distribution sector reform agenda. 

Interestingly despite tens of thousands of crores of rupees having been spent on GIS mapping by distribution companies, we do not yet have even a single 11 KV feeder anywhere in the country GIS mapped in a manner that it serves as decision-support. The last part is important since many discoms will claim to have GIS mapped their networks without delivering any reasonable functional utility. This should count as arguably one of the biggest technology scandals in any sector. And, what's more, I shall hazard the claim that we are unlikely to succeed any time in the foreseeable future with such GIS mapping. Here is why. 

A 11 KV distribution feeder is a network with a 11 KV spine that culminates in several distribution transformers from each of which further lines feed into several household connections. This network is a very dynamic system, especially in urban areas, with new connections being added and old ones disconnected, connection categories being changed, and transformers being split or upgraded. Further the distribution network itself undergoes constant changes due to strengthening works, road widenings, large property developments, and several other practical exigencies. 

In this context, any GIS map is reliable only if we have a system to capture these changes and update the network map in real time. This can be done only if the entire work-flow of the distribution company - approval of works, connection changes etc - is automated and captured in one application. Further, the work and completion plans of all network related works and connection changes should  respectively emerge from and be captured and integrated into the base GIS map. 

Even the best distribution companies in India especially those with significant rural areas, despite powerpoint presentations and tall claims, are still some distance away from being able to achieve this.

None of this is to deny the undoubted importance and urgency of distribution feeder mapping - identifying all the consumers under a feeder and each one of its distribution transformers. This is an essential starting point for any meaningful energy audit, critical for the reduction of distribution losses. But this is best done as a simple and diligent exercise of physical mapping of all connections under each feeder. Unfortunately, there are no technology shortcuts to this basic requirement.

This should also count as a teachable example of the limits of using technology in improving public systems. If ever there was the need for a negative screen for an "innovation", GIS mapping of electricity distribution network is the one!

1 comment:

Nagaraj Kurapati said...

You hit the nail right on the head. I have been following you since long but this article should be an eye opener for the Ministry of Power.

A similar program like R-APDRP in power sector has been implemented by MHA called CCTNS (Crime and Criminal Tracking Networks and Systems) is a project under Indian government for creating a comprehensive and integrated system for effective policing through e-Governance. At least the software in this program is unique for the entire country and was developed at MHA by an implementing agency so that each state doesnt need to invest again on the software.

Such wasnt the case in R-APDRP . I can vouch that the desired results of the program is not achieved even in a single town, forget a DISCOM.