An excellent video and infographic captures how inequality gets baked into your life from the accident of birth through massive 6000-hour early childhood learning gap,
By the time they reach 6th grade, middle class kids have likely spent 6,000 more hours learning than kids born into poverty. Learning time is a resource that is unequally distributed, and disadvantaged students suffer the consequences. While middle class children learn to read, create, persist, and problem-solve at home and through after-school and summer experiences, parents stressed by poverty are far less likely to be able to ensure those opportunities for their children.
Update 1 (13/9/2014)
Nicholas Kristof and Sheryl WuDunn have this nice essay on the benefits of early childhood interventions and good parenting on long-term life outcomes of children.