There are three observations from the graphic. One, Apple has ceased to be a manufacturer. It does not make iPhone itself - it neither manufactures the components nor assembles them into a finished product. The components come from a variety of suppliers and the assembly is done by Foxconn, a Taiwanese firm, at its plant in Shenzhen, China. This leaves Apple free to concentrate on "designing elegant, easy-to-use combinations of hardware, software and services".
Second, Samsung, which is Apple's closest competitor in the smartphones market, is also its largest supplier, accounting for 26% of the component cost of an iPhone. As The Economist writes, Samsung provides some of iPhone's most important components - the flash memory that holds the phone's apps, music and operating software; the working memory, or DRAM; and the applications processor that makes the whole thing work. This gives an insight into Samsung's own business model - "acting as a supplier of components for others gives it the scale to produce its own products more cheaply".
Third, the last two years have seen a dramatic shake-up in the global smartphones market, comparable to anything elsewhere in history. Apple's increase in market share from 13% to 19.1% pales in comparison to Samsung's spectacular rise from just 5.6% to 16.2% and Nokia's precipituous decline from 37.3% to 15.7%.
Update 1 (23/1/2012)
Even though Chinese workers contribute only about 1 percent of the value of the iPod, the export of a finished iPod to the United States directly contributes about $150 to our bilateral trade deficit with the Chinese.